Glossary of Tea Terms
There are several technical terms that are peculiar to the tea trade in the country. These include those relating to tea manufacture and also specific terms employed by producers, buyers, blenders and brokers in tea business. The extensive use of many of these terms and variations that exist in regard to some of their definitions have necessitated the preparation of an Indian Standard glossary of tea terms (IS 4541) in order to achieve a degree of Uniformity. The glossary has been compiled on the basis of teas of both North and South Indian manufacture and is intended to serve as a guide to all those interested in the tea industry.
The names and abbreviations for different grades of the teas are also given.
International Standards The International Standards for Tea are being formulated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The Agricultural and Food Products Technical Committee of ISO (TC 34) has under it a Subcommittee for Tea (SC 8). The Secretariat for this Subcommittee is with UK Member Body and is being managed by the British Standards Institution. Members of this Subcommittee include prominent tea producing and trading countries, namely, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, China, Sri Lanka, Kenya, India. So far it has published 21 standards which relate to specification of black tea, instant tea and test methods for analysis of chemical parameters, sampling, grading, vocabulary and specification for tea sacks.
Presently, this Subcommittee is engaged in the standardization of test methods to characterize and discriminate between green and black tea in terms of total polyphenol and catechin content. To achieve this, the Subcommittee has organized international ring tests in two stages, namely, Stage 1 – To set up method with standard and instant tea samples, and Stage 2 – Analysis of leaf tea. Twenty participating laboratories from different member countries, including India, have participated in the collaborative trials. Work is still under way to carry out further investigation with the aim of improving performance and organizing another interlaboratory test. Besides, HPLC test method for determination of caffeine content is also being processed as a Draft International Standard.
Tea manufactures can apply for the license to use the Standard Mark for their product, if they comply with the requirements of the standard. The BIS Product Certification Scheme provides a third party guarantee to the consumer that any product which carries the Standard Mark of the Bureau meets the quality parameters prescribed in the standard.
Under the scheme for labeling environment friendly products introduced at the instance of the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF), Government of India, the ECO Mark shall be administered by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) under the BIS Act, 1986 as per the Resolution No.71 dated 20 February 1991 as published in the Gazette of the Government of India vide GSR No.85(E) dated 21 February 1991. For a product to be eligible for the ECO Mark, it shall also carry the Standard Mark of BIS for quality, besides meeting additional environment friendly (EF) requirements. Tea manufacturers can also apply to BIS for the ECO Mark, if their product meets the additional environmental friendly requirements.
Black tea manufacturing involves primarily growing of tea plants in an estate, plucking of shoot and processing the same in the factory into a form ready for making beverage. This is a traditional, labour intensive industry, where processing is largely manual, exposing the product to contamination. Therefore, sanitation facilities and personnel hygiene need due consideration. The Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a preventive food safety system developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and internationally recognized under the WTO Agreement. This system can be followed right from the point of tea plantations, through factory processing, packing and storage of tea; in other words, from its primary production to the consumer. Implementation of HACCP requires that the processing should be done under hygienic conditions, and this is a prerequisite to HACCP.
BIS has published IS 2491 : 1998 ‘Food Hygiene – General principles – Code of practice (second revision) and IS 15000 : 1988 Food Hygiene – Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) – System and Guidelines for its Application, harmonized with the corresponding Codex guidelines. BIS offers certification to companies complying with HACCP requirements along with ISO 9000 system certification. Besides, training programmes are also conducted to educate the industry in the application of HACCP Principles.
News & Events11
Preharvest-interval re-commendedby-UPASI-TRF-TRI-Updated-on-1FEB-2021Read More
updated in Jan 2021 MRLRead More
Wanted Assistant Advisory officers for the UPASI Regional Centres located in Tamil Nadu and KERALA. Qualification MSc Botany / Entomology / Zoology / Agriculture/Related Life Sciences, Age limit 22 to 28 years, Candidates should be willing to do extensive field work, two wheeler license is…Read More
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Dr. C.S. Venkata Ram Memorial Annual Tea Colloquium will be announced later.Read More
The Pesticide Residue Division is equipped with state-of-art instruments viz., Gas Chromatograph, High Performance Liquid Chromatograph, GCMS, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, etc., Our lab is GLP certified by National GLP Compliance Monitoring Authority, Govt. of India for the execution of Pesticide Residue Studies. We are accredited…Read More
Monthly Circular April -2014 WEATHER Weather data recorded in March 2014 at the TRF observatory are given below, along with the corresponding figures for March 2013. Year Total Rainfall mm Mean Sunshine hr/day Mean Temperature ° C Mean Relative Humidity % at Mean Evaporation…Read More
News Letter -2020 JuneRead More
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Radhakrishnan,B., K. K. Srikumar, Smitha, K. B. Suresh. 2018. Evaluation of Sulfoxaflor 50%WG against Tea mosquito bug, Helopeltistheivora Waterhouse (Hemiptera: Miridae). Pestology. 42 (3), 31-36. Radhakrishnan, B. 2018. Recent issues on pesticide residues and other contaminants in Tea. Planters chronicle. 114(1): 4-11. Radhakrishnan B. and…Read More
The principal landmark in the history of tea research in south India, was the establishment of a Tea Experimental Station in Gudalur in 1926. During the last seven and half decades, this research organisation. Now known as the UPASI Tea Research Foundation (UPASI TRF), had…Read More
Annual Report is the one among the major publications of UPASI TRF. Annual report of each year is released by September of the following year. Other publications include Research Highlights and half yearly Newsletters. The Bulletin of UPASI TRF is an occasional publication. The Handbook…Read More
National Symposium Announcement
DATE: 22nd Jannuary, 2021
DATE: 10-12 December 2014
PLACE: KozhikodeRead More
Research Extension Meeting
DATE: 06-08 May 2013
PLACE: ValparaiRead More
JOINT AREA SCIENTIFIC SYMPOSIA (JASS)
INTERNATIONAL TEA CONVENTION
Dr.C.S. Venkata Ram Annual Tea Colloquium
DATE: 1 August 2013
PLACE: VALPARAIRead More
INTERACTIVE SESSIONS / WORKSHOPS
PLACE: VALPARAIRead More
PLATINUM JUBILEE SYMPOSIUM
PLACE: ChennaiRead More
PLANTATION CROPS SYMPOSIUM 2014
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Newsletter – Dec 2019Read More
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Of late, considering the constant usage of pesticides and to monitor the residues in the final produce, a well equipped test facility was established at UPASI TRI in 1994. The pesticide residue laboratory is accredited by National Accreditation Board for testing and calibration Laboratories (NABL)…Read More
The Tea Research Institute at Valparai has seven divisions namely Botany, Soil Chemistry, Entomology, Pesticide Residue, Plant Pathology & Microbiology, Plant Physiology & Biotechnology and Tea Technology. Botany Research activities of Botany Division include plant improvement, cultivation practices and weed research. Plant improvement programme was…Read More
Chemistry Division is involved in research pertaining to soil-plant nutrients of tea besides extending analytical service to the industry. The research activities include investigations on physico-chemical properties of soil, soil-plant interactions, response of tea to major, secondary and micronutrients and their interactions. The research work…Read More
Entomology Division involve in basic and applied aspects of insect pests, particularly, biology, ecology and evolving control measures. The division evolved and recommended physical, chemical and biological method of tea pests control. In the past, extensive studies on bioecology, crop loss due to major pests…Read More
Pathology & Microbiology
In the division of Plant Pathology & Microbiology, research is carried out on diseases of tea and biofertilizers. Among the tea diseases, blister blight is the most important leaf disease caused by the pathogen, Exobasidium vexans affecting the tender harvestable shoots of tea resulting in…Read More
Physiology & Biotechnology
Plant Physiology Division was established in 1980 which has been primarily concentrated on crop productivity. The division strives for excellence in applied research in tea productivity and bush health besides biotechnological studies. The research undertaken extends over a wide range of research programmes having collaborative…Read More