To effectively address the issue of pests and diseases in tea cultivation, the responsible and careful use of pesticides is crucial. Therefore, the Plant Protection Code aims to provide scientific guidelines and promote the proper utilization of pesticides in the tea industry. This comprehensive guideline, introduced by the Tea Board, ensures the safe application of Plant Protection Formulations (PPFs) in Indian tea plantations.
The implementation of the Plant Protection Code (PPC) serves multiple purposes. Firstly, it establishes sustainable plant protection practices, aligning with Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles. By promoting alternative control strategies such as biological control, the PPC aims to gradually reduce reliance on chemical interventions. Responsible chemical management is a key focus of the PPC, contributing to long-term sustainability in tea cultivation.
Tea Board India, in collaboration with Tea Research Institutes and the Indian tea industry, actively addresses the issue of PPF usage to combat pests and diseases. This collaborative effort ensures compliance with the requirements of both national regulatory bodies, such as the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), and international bodies like Codex, EU, Japan, and the USA. The Central Insecticides Board and Registration Committee (CIB&RC), a government entity, continuously reviews pesticide usage in India for various crops and maintains up-to-date information in coordination with the pesticide industry.
To ensure the safety and quality of tea products, the PPC allows only the usage of approved PPFs that meet the standards set by the CIB&RC. The maximum residue limits (MRLs) for these approved PPFs are established by the FSSAI. The Plant Protection Code is a dynamic policy document that undergoes periodic updates, with the current version being the 15th iteration.
In adherence to the standards defined by the FSSAI, tea planters are required to regularly test their end products. The proper implementation of the Plant Protection Code enables the tea industry to effectively manage issues related to pests, diseases, and pesticide residue. This, in turn, ensures the maintenance of food safety and quality, allowing for the production of high-quality tea for both domestic consumption and export to the international market.
List of CIB&RC approved Plant Protection Formulations for use in Tea plantations along with their MRLs fixed by FSSAI [Food Safety and Standards (Contaminants, Toxins and Residues), Third Amendment Regulations, 2018 (effective from 03.01.2019)]
|Type of PPF||Sl. No.||Name of PPFs||MRL (ppm)|
|Acaricides||1||Cyflumetofen 20 SC||0.05*|
|2||Ethion 50 EC||5.0|
|3||Fenazaquin 10 EC||3.0|
|4||Fenpyroximate 5 EC/SC||6.0**|
|5||Hexythiazox 5.45 EC||15.0|
|6||Propargite 57 EC||10.0|
|7||Sulphur 80 WP||Not required|
|8||Sulphur 40 WP||Not required|
|9||Sulphur 52 SC||Not required|
|10||Spiromesifen 22.9 SC||70.0|
|11||Etoxazole 10 SC||15.0|
|12||Flufenzine 20 SC||MRL yet to be notified|
|13||Pyridaben 20% WP||MRL yet to be notified|
|14||Propergite 42% +Hexythiazox 2%EC||Propergite= 10.0
|15||Fenazaquin 10% + Bifenthrin 4% EC||Fenazaquin= 3.0
|Insecticides||16||Azadirachtin 1 EC||-|
|17||Azadirachtin 5 EC||-|
|18||Bifenthrin 8 SC||30.0|
|19||Clothianidin 50 WDG||0.7|
|20||Deltamethrin 2.8 EC||5.0|
|21||Deltamethrin 11 EC||5.0|
|22||Dimethoate 30 % EC***||MRL yet to be notified|
|23||Emamectin Benzoate 5 SG||0.06**|
|24||Emamectin Benzoate 3% + Thiamethoxam 12% WG||Emamectin Benzoate= 0.06
Thiamethoxam = 20.0
|25||Fenpropathrin 30 EC||2.0|
|26||Flubendiamide 20 WG||50.0|
|27||Flubendiamide 19.92% w/w + Thiacloprid 19.92% w/w SC||Flubendiamide = 50.0
Thiacloprid = 5.0
|28||Quinalphos 25 EC||0.7**|
|29||Thiacloprid 21.7 SC||5.0|
|30||Thiamethoxam 25 WG||20.0|
|31||Thiamethoxam 12.6% + L-Cyhalothrin 9.5%||Thiamethoxam= 20.0
|Fungicides||32||Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP||Carbendazim= 0.5
|33||Hexaconazole 4% + Zineb 68% WP||Zineb= 0.1*|
|34||Hexaconazole 5 EC||5.0**|
|35||Propiconazole 25 EC||6.0**|
|36||Copper Oxychloride||150.0 (as elemental copper)|
|37||Tetraconazole 3.8% w/w (4% w/v)||MRL yet to be notified|
|38||Trifloxystrobin 25% + Tebuconazole 50% WG||MRL yet to be notified|
|Herbicides||39||Glyphosate 41 SL||1.0|
|40||Glyphosate 71 SG||1.0|
|41||Glyphosate Ammonium Salt 5 SL||1.0|
|42||Glufosinate Amonium13.5 SL||0.01|
|43||Oxyfluorfen 23.5 EC||0.2|
|44||Paraquat Dichloride 24 WSC||0.2|
|45||Oxyfluorfen 2.5% + Isopropyl amine salt of Glyphosate 41% w/w SC||Oxyfluorfen=0.2
|46||Carfentrazone Ethyl 0.43% + Glyphosate 30.82% EW||Carfentrazone Ethyl= 0.02*
|47||Indaziflam 1.65% w/w + Glyphosate-isopropyl ammonium 44.63% w/w SC||MRL of Indaziflam is yet to be notified|
|48||Saflufenacil 70 % WG||MRL yet to be notified|
|49||Triasulfuron 20% WG||MRL yet to be notified|
|50||2,4-D amine salt 58 % WSC||0.05|
|51||Glufosinate Ammonium 13.4% + Oxyfluorfen 4.8% w/w||Glufosinate Amonium=0.01
|Bio-pesticide||52||Beauveria bassiana 5% WP (Cfu count 2X108/gm. min)|
# The above list is dynamic and may change from time to time based on the CIB approved list of pesticides for use in tea and this may be seen from the website of Tea Board.
* Maximum Residue Limit fixed at Limit of Quantification (LOQ). Tolerance limit of 0.01 mg/kg shall apply in cases of pesticides for which MRL have not been fixed.
** Revised and operational vide FSSAI order No. F.No.SS-T007/1/2023-Standard-FSSAI dated 27th April, 2023.
*** Ad-hoc approval given by CIB-RC under national exigency for one year.
Copper Hydroxide, Profenophos and Bitertanol have been removed from this list following gazette notification of Ministry of Agriculture S.O. 2486 (E) dated 24th September, 2014 although MRL of Bitertanol in tea is fixed by FSSAI.
Note: This list does not contain extremely and highly hazardous chemicals classified under World Health Organization (WHO) 1a & 1b and are fully aligned with the Rotterdam and Stockholm conventions.